For today i’ll show how to install software in Freebsd. Freebsd use the tree ports, consist in a tree of directories that contains different source code and scripts that automate the process of compilation and installation. In each port directory we can find these files:

– makefile: contains different entries, like the installation directory and how compile the port.
– distinfo: Contains information about the files has to download to compile the program and the checksum in md5 to check the integrity.
– directory files: contains the necessary patches to compile and install the program in your freebsd system.
– pkg-descr: description of the package.
– pkg-plist: list of all the files that the program will install in your system.

How to install the tree ports

I’ll install and update the tree ports from a cvs repository, is important the /usr/ports directory is empty.

1.- Copy an example file of ports-supfile to our home directory:

# cp /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile ~/

2.- Edit ports-supfile file and change the defaukt host and add

# vi ~/ports-supfile

3.- Run csup for download the port tree:

# csup -L 2 ~/ports-supfile

Keep the port tree updated

1.- Install portsnap:

# cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portsnap && make install clean

2.- Download the last compressed snapshot of the tree ports:

# portsnap fetch

3.- Extract the last fetch of the port tree:

# portsnap extract

4.- To update the port tree:

# portsnap update

Search ports

1.- Use de command whereis:

# whereis portaudit

2.- Using make search in the port directory (/usr/ports/). Before use make search, we have to make an index of ports :

# cd /usr/ports/ && make index
# make search name=portaudit

Install ports

1.- We have to enter in the directory of the software code, for example to install portaudit:

# cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portaudit

2.- Next we have to run make install clean, this command will install the software and clean the temporary directories:

# make install clean

– If we want to reconfigure a software you can use the config option or showconfig to show the current config:

# make config
# make showconfig

4.- If you want only download files, you can use make fetch:

# make fetch

Package info

With the command pkg_info we can seach about ports installed in our system and know the version number:

Uninstall ports

– We have to change to the port directory and run pkg_delete:

# cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof && pkg_delete lsof-4.57

Clean port tree

When we install software from ports, this generate temporary files. Is important clean this, exist a script that automate this cleaning in the port directories:

# portsclean -C

This clean all the distfiles that are not referenciated by any port:

# portsclean -D

And with this option clean all the distfiles that are not referenciated by any port that is currently installed in the system.

# portsclean -DD

Check the vulnerabilities of software

portaudit allow check all the packages installs in our system and search in a vulnerability database and show if our version is affected and the vulnerability.

1.- search for vulnerabilities in our current ports:

# portaudit -Fa

In my case was found a vulnerability of DoS attack in apache. We have to upgrade our system to newer version that the vulnerability has been corrected.

2.- Is recommended to visit regurally the web page:

Thats it!! More and better in the next entry!! Good bye!

Install, configure and update the ports tree
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